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Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Program


General Authority and Definitions

Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) are agricultural operations where animals are kept and raised in confined situations. An AFO is a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met:

  • animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and
  • crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.

The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations define a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) as any AFO that either meets a certain animal population threshold, or, regardless of population, is determined to be a significant contributor of pollutants to waters of the United States by the appropriate authority [40 C.F.R. § 122.23(b)(2)]

The NPDES program regulates the discharge of pollutants from point sources to waters of the United States. CAFOs are point sources, as defined by the 40 C.F.R. § 122.2

Program Contact Information

Clarice Cutler – Program Manager 802-490-6181
Abbi Pajak - Environmental Analyst 802-490-4741