Charles Baker Adams, 1845-1848


Vermont's first State Geologist, 1845 - 1848, began a geologic survey of VT in 1844. He was Burr Professor of Chemistry and Natural History at Middlebury College, 1838 - 1847, and a leading conchologist. Portrait: State Geologist's Report (1946).  


Zadock Thompson, 1853-1856

Zadock Thompson

Zadock Thompson (1796 - 1856), State Naturalist, 1853 - 1856, while assistant to the State Geologist, 1845 - 1847, made special studies of Vermont mountain heights and Chittenden County trap dikes. Portrait: engraving by F. C. Buttre, the Wilbur Collection, UVM.

Augustus Young, 1856

No picture available. Augustus Young (1785-1857) was appointed as Thompson's successor by Governor Stephen Royce in February 1856.

Edward Hitchcock, 1856-1861

Edward Hitchcock

Hitchcock (1793-1864), State Geologist, 1856 - 1861, and President of Amherst College, 844 - 1854, produced with his sons the first detailed study of Vermont geology and bedrock map which served the State for a century. Portrait: State Geologist's Report, 1846.

Albert David Hager, 1864-1870


Hager (1817-1888), was an assistant to Hitchcock, Vermont State Geologist, 1864 - 1870, and Missouri State Geologist, 1870-1871. Portrait: Chicago Historical Society. 

Hiram Adolphus Cutting, 1870-1886


Cutting (1832 - 1892), State Geologist, 1870 - 1886, M.D., A.M., Ph.D., & c., a one-man extension service and walking encyclopedia about nature in Vermont. Portrait: Norwich University. 

History of the Vermont Geological Survey & the State Geologist Gallery

The mission of producing a geological and mineralogical survey of the state guided the establishment of the Vermont Geological Survey. This Survey would provide a full scientific examination and description of the state's rocks, soils, metals and minerals. Charles B. Adams (1814-1853) was appointed the first Vermont State Geologist by Governor William Slade in March of 1845. The survey progressed slowly over the years due to little funding. Several annual reports were published, but the first geologic map of Vermont was not completed until 1861. The purpose of the Survey fell into ambiguity for some years until State Geologist George W. Perry was given a small annual budget to prepare and maintain a systematic statistical report of Vermont's mineral resources. George H. Perkins (appointed in 1898), produced eighteen biennial reports devoted to the state's mineral resource potential. 1933-47, Eldridge Jacobs held the position with some focus on mineral resources and even seismology.

Charles Doll's legacy (1947-76) is the production of both the 1961 Centennial Geologic Map of Vermont and the Surficial Geology Map of Vermont in 1970. From 1976-1991, Charles Ratte successfully transferred the responsibilites of the Survey from the University of Vermont to the Agency of Natural Resources, performed a survey of radioactivity in Vermont rocks and grappled with the issues of radioactive waste siting in Vermont. In 1989, he spirited legislation through the State House that redefined the mission of the State Geologist. Diane Conrad, Vermont's first female State Geologist (1991-1995), managed the passage of the Texas/Vermont/Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Compact through the Vermont Legislature. Her vision established the method for placing new bedrock geologic maps into digital GIS format. Laurence R. Becker, Vermont's 13th State Geologist  (1995 - 2014),  managed bedrock and surficial mapping programs and applied geologic studies. Becker's tenure saw the completion of a new bedrock geologic map in 2011, a 25-year joint project of the Survey, the US Geological Survey, and the University of Vermont. The Survey is now directed by Marjorie H. Gale who has served in Vermont State Government since 1995 and became the 14th State Geologist in 2014. She manages the bedrock and surficial mapping programs, advises the legislature on mineral industry issues and groundwater, conducts research and mapping, and manages interdisciplinary studies with a strong geologic component such as groundwater resources, hazards, and health and geochemistry. Read more about the VGS history.


George William Perry, 1886-1898


Perry (1846 - 1928), State Geologist, 1886 - 1898, Universalist minister and founder of Eagle Camp, South Hero. Portrait: Perry Family Archives.


George Henry Perkins, 1898-1933


Perkins (1844 - 1933), State Geologist, 1898 - 1933. Portrait: UVM Archives, gift of Geraldine Andrews.

Elbridge Churchill Jacobs, 1933-1947


Jacobs (1873 - 1957), State Geologist, 1933 - 1947, posing beside his seismograph in his basement office, Robert Hull Fleming Museum, 1940's. Picture: UVM Archives.

Charles G. Doll, 1947-1976


Doll (1898 - 1990), State Geologist, 1947 - 1976, and John G. Dennis, field geologist, examining a field map on the south shore of Lake Willoughby by Mount Pisgah, circa 1956. Photo: UVM Archives.

Charles "Chuck" Ratte, 1976-1991


Ratte (1927-2019) successfully moved the Survey from UVM to the Agency of Natural Resources and redefined the mission of the State Geologist.

Diane L. Conrad, 1991-1995


Laurence R. Becker, 1995-2014


Marjorie Hollis Gale, 2014 - present


Gale (1952- ), State Geologist 2014- present, at the summit of Belvidere Mountain, VT.